Demystifying DeFi: An Introduction to Decentralized Finance

Satyam Bansal
3 min readFeb 16, 2023

Decentralized finance (DeFi) has gained significant traction in recent years, offering a new, decentralized, and trustless financial infrastructure. DeFi components are the building blocks of this emerging ecosystem, providing the foundation for a new era of financial applications. In this article, we will explore the core components of DeFi and its functionality.

Photo by Shubham Dhage on Unsplash

Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are self-executing digital contracts that are automatically enforced once certain conditions are met. These contracts are deployed on a blockchain network, ensuring that they are tamper-proof and immutable. Smart contracts are at the heart of DeFi, providing the infrastructure for decentralized exchanges, lending platforms, and other financial applications. These contracts are written in programming languages such as Solidity, which is used to write smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.

Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs)

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) are platforms that allow users to trade cryptocurrencies without relying on a central authority. DEXs rely on smart contracts to execute trades and ensure that transactions are trustless and transparent. DEXs use automated market makers (AMMs) or order books to facilitate trades. AMMs uses a mathematical formula to determine the price of a cryptocurrency based on the supply and demand of the asset, while order book-based DEXs match buyers and sellers directly.


Crypto wallets are digital wallets that allow users to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies. DeFi wallets, such as MetaMask and MyEtherWallet, allow users to interact with DeFi applications seamlessly. These wallets integrate with DEXs, lending platforms, and other DeFi applications, allowing users to manage their DeFi portfolios from a single interface.

Lending and Borrowing Protocols

DeFi lending and borrowing protocols allow users to lend or borrow cryptocurrencies without relying on a traditional financial institution. Lenders provide liquidity to the platform, earning interest on their deposited assets, while borrowers can take out loans by putting up collateral in the form of other cryptocurrencies. The collateral ensures that loans are backed by assets, reducing the risk of default. Popular DeFi lending protocols include Compound, Aave, and MakerDAO.


Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies that are pegged to the value of a fiat currency, such as the US dollar. These cryptocurrencies provide stability in a volatile market, allowing users to hedge against price fluctuations. Stablecoins are used as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account in the DeFi ecosystem. Popular stablecoins include USDT, USDC, and DAI.

Governance Tokens

Governance tokens are tokens that give users voting rights in a particular DeFi protocol. These tokens are used to manage the direction and development of the protocol, allowing users to vote on proposals, changes to the protocol, and other governance issues. Governance tokens are also used to incentivize participation in the ecosystem, providing rewards to users for contributing to the platform’s growth. Popular governance tokens include COMP, UNI, and YFI.


Oracles are third-party services that provide external data to smart contracts. Oracles trigger events on the blockchain, such as price feeds or weather reports, allowing smart contracts to execute automatically. Oracles provide an important link between blockchain technology and the real world, enabling the development of real-world applications on the blockchain.


DeFi insurance protocols provide coverage against smart contract failures or hacks. These protocols use a decentralized insurance model, where users pool their funds together to create a mutual insurance fund. Users pay a premium to the fund, which is used to provide coverage in the event of a hack or other security breach. Popular DeFi insurance protocols include Nexus Mutual and Cover Protocol.